Judicial Branch

The Judiciary has a common law power of equity and tends to recognize judicial precedents. The judicial law is vested in the Supreme Court and in such lower courts as established by law. The 1981 Judicial Reorganization Act established for main levels of courts and confers special courts: At the apex is the Supreme Court, it consists of chief justice and fourteen associate justices. It is the highest court of all court of appeal in all civil and criminal matters. The Supreme Court has the power to discipline judges of lower courts or order their dismissal; The Court of Appeals hears appeal from the regional trial courts and quasi-judicial agencies, instrumentalities, boards and commission; The regional trial courts hear appeal from the metropolitan trial courts, municipal trial courts, and municipal circuit trial courts and have exclusive original jurisdiction over all actions involving family cases and other serious cases; The Court of Tax Appeals is a special court with sole appellate jurisdiction over appeals of the Commissioner of Internal Revenue and the Commission of Customs on certain issues. Members of the Supreme Court and judges of lower courts are appointed by the president from at least three nominees prepared by the Judicial and Bar Council for every vacancy.

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