Lying Northwest of Manila City centre, beyond Tondo, Caloocan City has a population of 1,177,604 as of 2000 and is growing rapidly. Its industries include textiles, foodstuffs, engineering and craft industry. The original village was founded by Augustinians in 1762 and became a municipality in 1815. It suffered severe damage during the war, situated as it was on the route by which the Japanese entered Manila in 1942 and the Americans in 1945.
The city’s main landmark, Bonifacio Monument, is located at the intersection of Rizal Avenue and EDSA. It commemorates the most proletarian among the Filipino heroes, Andres Bonifacio. Immortalized by the great nationalist Guillermo Tolentino, the monument marks the first battle between the Katipuneros and Spanish soldiers that took place in the city on 3 August 1896.