The Iglesia ni Kristo (Church of Christ) was founded in Manila in 1913 by Felix Manalo, a former Protestant of great personal charisma. His appeal was to all those at first, mainly the peasants who had failed to find support in any Catholicism or Protestantism during the times of difficulties in their lives; later he also attracted members of the higher classes of society. The church has a supreme head wielding centralised authority; and since the central authorities may take upon themselves to advise the faithful which candidate to vote for in an election, the church has considerable political influence. Its strength lies in the total commitment of its ministers to preaching the faith and offering help to those who ask for it, and in their thorough command of the text of the Scriptures. The members of the church are required to lead an upright and temperate life on pain of expulsion.