December

• 8 December: Immaculate Conception, with processions, fireworks and a variety of different celebrations. Principally at Roxas (island of Panay), Vigan (Ilocos Sur), Pasig, Malabon and Taal (Batangas). • 12 December: Fiesta of Pasangjan. • 16-25 December: Christmas novena, with masses celebrated before dawn (Misa de Gallo). • 24 December: Panunuluyan, commemorating Joseph and Mary’s quest for a room on Christmas Eve. Lantern Festival at San Fernando (Pampanga). • 25 December: Christmas Day. Decorated cribs in churches and houses, lights in windows, etc. • 26 December: Bota de Flores offerings of flowers to Nuestra Señora de Guia in the church at Ermita (Manila). • 28 December: Feast of the Holy Innocents. • 30 December: Rizal Day (public holiday).